Beyond Space Time, The Tesseract & 11 Dimensions
We live in very interesting times as Scientists peer into the very fundamental secrets of our Universe. The Higg Boson, Multiverse, Quantum Tunnelling & Dark Matter to name a few buzz words I can barely conceptualise & yet remain fascinated by. Not unlike a Moth mesmerised by lights, I will never shake off my innate curiosity.
Is there anything beyond our 3 Physical dimension of matter & time (Space-time) ?
Are curious about Hyperspace or dimensions beyond spacetime?
Does your own sense of self as you walk down the journey of your life make you want to know more about your inner world of thoughts?
Why is Hyperspace so important?
Seems that it is a means to an end when it comes to Quantum phenomena that cannot be understood and explain much about the menagerie of Fundamental particles & so on.
Gravity says Michio Kaku gets apparently weaker & may be one explanation for our ever expanding universe. Gravity may leak into the high/smaller dimensions above that of Space-Time (3D + Time). As this happens the pull of matter on itself weakens over time of some 14 Billion years since our Big Bang.
In another sentence, Michio mentions how Dark Matter & Dark Energy could harbour the conduit where Gravity is negated as our Universe explanded.
Dark Matter makes over 95% of the mass of our entire Universe & cannot be seen or studies as yet for now. Folks can only build theoretical model that allow for missing links in our understanding of our Cosmos & give us clues that something out there called Dark Matter is very much what our Universe is mostly made of.
Hyperspace for a fish says Michio is like peering above the water surface only to find another "dimension" so to speak although the later has depth and is already 3 Dimensional. A good metaphor, we understand there are dimensions beyond Space-Time that can provide a basis for Quantum Tunnelling, Quantum Entanglement, singularities like the big Bang to start with.
He continues to talk about Hyper dimensions gives us a framework to understand a lot more from within the standard model of fundamental particles (hope I got it right).
The Hyperspace Model being Stable at 11 Dimensions as higher dimensions are NOT stable enough & the mathematical equations tend to break down from 12 Dimensions and above. So 11 according to String Theorists & yet String theory has a lot of unresolved mounting challenges .
Why String Theory & What is it?
Best layman's explanation so far read like this unedited (credit: Forbes)
"Working in three spatial dimensions is very difficult, and when a physics problem is challenging, we often try and solve a simpler version first. If we go down to one dimension, things become very simple. The only possible one-dimensional surfaces are an open string, where there are two separate, unattached ends, or a closed string, where the two ends are attached to form a loop. In addition, the spatial curvature — so complicated in three dimensions — becomes trivial. So what we're left with, if we want to add in matter, is a set of scalar fields (just like certain types of particles) and the cosmological constant (which acts just like a mass term): a beautiful analogy.
The extra degrees of freedom a particle gains from being in multiple dimensions don't play much of a role; so long as you can define a momentum vector, that's the main dimension that matters. In one dimension, therefore, quantum gravity looks just like a free quantum particle in any arbitrary number of dimensions.?
A Tesseract is the next level from Space Time as the 5th Dimension, assuming we can agree on Time being the 4th. No it's not the same as what's referered to the Avenger Marvel Movie.
Why are HyperSpace dimensions smaller?
Beyond Space Time, Hyperspace dimensions as indeed smaller and cannot be directly observed.
How do we know this? Because lower dimensions of Space-Time would leak away into it if Hyperspace dimensions were any bigger, if otherwise.
Michio says that Gravity, our weakest standard model force however, might be leaking away into Hyperspace.
Could beings in the 4th dimensions & above look down into Space-Time?
YES!! Michio says tongue in cheek to illustrate that it is a one way interaction for now perhaps.
My mind is processing all of this and has tried to understand more of our fascinating Universe for a long time. More to add, later on.